The Issues of Theoretical Neurology
According to the World Health Organization, every third of the world population suffers from the brain disorder. In early 21st century the highly developed countries witness fast growth of neuropsychic disorders including psychoses, neuroses, reactive conditions and other, increase of the rates of suicides and the number of organic diseases of the brain. The prisons are overcrowded with the deviant behavior people that are incapable of social adaptation and unable to comply with the laws, morals and ethics of the society. So far, we are unable to help these people. The politicians, sociologists and psychologists explain the increase of the neuropsychiatric incidence by the chronic stress, ecological problems, globalization of the economy and regular war conflicts. It is possible that the negative impact of the unfavorable influence of the environment and society play an increasingly important role in the onset of the brain disorders. However, true reasons for this negative phenomenon seem to lie outside political, social and economic trends of the global development. The experts of neuroscience, neurology and psychiatry consider the global mismatch of the accumulated fundamental systemic morphofunctional evidence and the real understanding of the human brain functioning to be the key reason for the growth of the neurological and psychiatric disorders. The knowledge of anatomy, neuromorphology and neurophysiology of the brain and even accurate imaging of the brain (CT, MRI, PET etc.) does not throw light on the principles of the brain functioning and, accordingly, is not able to lead to the adequate therapy of the brain pathologies. It is sad to acknowledge but the fact that there is no real therapy for the neurological and psychiatric diseases has been officially stated by over 300 experts in neurosciences in their Flagship Report for the Human Brain Project (2012). The technologies of medical pharmacology, pharmaceutics and pharmacogenetics in the therapy of neural and psychiatric diseases are at the end of their resources, and complications from the standard and innovative therapies exceed the benefits from their clinical use. Today the drug disease induced by the ungrounded administration of the pharmaceuticals rates the fourth cause of death after the cardio-vascular diseases, cancer and traumas.
Consequently, the abrupt growth of the number of neurological and psychiatric cases results from complete ineffectiveness of their therapy, impossibility of complete cure and regular recruitment of newly diseased patients. So far, the methods of reconstructive-restorative surgery of the brain have not shown any real results in the therapy of psychiatric and neurological cases. It is well known that any neurosurgical intervention or manipulation resolves in cicatricial-commissural process or cystic degeneration of the damaged neural tissue that manifests in the neurological or psychiatric deficit. The advances of contemporary neurosurgery led to the increase of the number of the cases of severe disability due to the post-surgical survival of the neurological patients with severe organic and psycho-organic defects and further outcomes of chronic vegetative states, dementia and complete inability to work. The number of the patients with organic diseases of the brain grows exponentially, which is associated with the advances of the intensive care in the prosthesing of the vital functions. The efforts of intensive care units improved the survival rates of the patients after cerebral injuries (strokes, intoxications, traumatic injuries) that involve incompatible with life neural tissue defects.
According to the data of the Institute of Healthy Ageing (USA) the abrupt ageing of the US and the EU population led to the increase of the cases of the Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. The number of them keeps growing and is predicted to achieve 13.8 million by 2050. That means that by 2050 one of 85 will suffer from the Alzheimer’s.
In the past 100 years the quantitative rates of the effectiveness of the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases did not change much, but the expenses grew 200-fold. According to the Flagship Report of the Human Brain project (2012) the expenses of the therapy of neural diseases total 80 billion euro per year in the EU. However, the real cure for the brain diseases is available nowhere in the world and the search for the innovative solutions and novel methodological approaches in the restoration of the functions of the brain and spinal cord remains topical for the healthcare of all countries including highly developed ones. The recently launched projects of the large-scale research of the brain signal the relevance of the issue. Beginning in 2005 over ten large-scale projects of brain research have been initiated by the top economies (the Blue Brain, 2005; the Human Connectome Project, 2010; the Human Brain Project, 2012; the Brain Initiative, 2013, Neuralink, 2017 and other), the sum total of which is equivalent to 10 billion USD. It is supposed that in 7 to 10 years these projects will lead to the understanding of the brain functioning, detection of the functioning principles and development of the innovative neurotechnologies of the treatment of the neural and psychic diseases.
We too decided to make our contribution to the development of the theoretical and clinical neurology. Here we present the alternative standing point on the available issues of the theoretical and clinical neurology. In the section Brain Theory you can find our understanding of the architecture and organization of the human brain along with the principles of its functioning. The English version of the book Human Brain Theory: Information-Commutation Device of the Brain and Principles of its Work and Modeling was published in New York and can be found here (hardcover) or here (e-book). The book in Russian can be purchased in the Clinic.
Also we would like to present our own works in the cell therapy and tissue engineering to treat neural diseases. By now our team has acquired invaluable experience of over 5506 transplantations for traumatic injury of the brain and spinal cord in humans, of 52 unique reconstructive microneurosurgeries in tissue engineering of the chronic spinal cord injury. Such experience is unavailable in any of the hospitals of the world. The experience is summarized in two monographs: Transplantation of Neural Cells and Tissue Engineering in Neural Diseases, 2003 and Spinal Cord Injury: Cell Technologies in the Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2010; the author is Prof. Andrey S. Bryukhovetskiy. The books are in Russian, and can be acquired in the Clinic (Phone +7-499-324-93-39).
We have developed a new systemized approach to the therapy of strokes and offer our experience and our services in the treatment of various types of strokes where we use the top international protocols. Our hospital has all contemporary imaging technologies to diagnose the brain pathologies: 1.5-Tesla or 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography fused with spiral 64-slice computer tomography, cerebral EEG mapping, magnetic encephalography (by partners) and complex urodynamic tests for spinal patients (by partners). We offer a complete range of medical services in electroneuromyography and transcranial magnetostimulation; we can evaluate the degree of the neural tissue damage at the cell level using immunochemistry of the brain (neurospecific proteins and antigens to them). We perform all contemporary types of cerebral angiography and interventional neurological assistance to our patients, including program regional perfusion of the pharmaceuticals and remodeling of the brain vessels. Our ultrasonic imaging device meets international standards and permits diagnostics of neuropathologies and monitoring of the dynamics of angiologic changes in the brain.
Our team has patented the unique technology of the bioengineering of the brain (See Patents)
We established unique intensive care unit for neurological patients in our Clinic. Simultaneously our hospital can accept five patients in severe condition on artificial lung ventilation.
The opportunities of our rehabilitation unit are presented in the appropriate section. Our team is able to rehabilitate the patients in any condition from any country. The specialized equipment and the rehabilitation team achieved unbelievable success in their work with extremely difficult neurological patients.
Our academic interests are concentrated on the neurooncology. We performed experimental research on animals to support our therapy of the malignant glial tumors and worked out a new approach to their treatment. Our approach is dedicated to the treatment of glioblastoma and metastases of the tumors into brain and has been published in multiple publications, both in Russia, and abroad. Professor Andrey S. Bryukhovetskiy has summed up the approach in two monographs Cell Technologies in Neurooncology: Cytoregulatory Therapy of Glial Tumors of the Brain, 2011 and Clinical Oncoproteomics. The Personalized Anti-Tumor Cell Therapy, 2013, in Russian.